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Byinshi wamenya ku ntambara yiswe iya 3 y’isi ya Afurika yabereye muri Congo n’u Rwanda ruyirimo>>

Uko iyi si yubatse mu mateka yayo, kenshi nta kinyejana kihirika kidasize amateka ajyanye n’intambara zikomeye aho wajya hose mu mfuruka zayo, iyi si ku migabane itandatu iyigize usanga buri gace karagiye kagira uguhangana gukomeye mu nzira za gisirikare.

Ni muri urwo rwego rero Bwiza.com yahisemo kubagezaho mu ncamake uko intambara yitiriwe Intambara y’isi ya Afurika yagenze.

Nushaka uyite “Intambara y’isi ya Afurika, Intambara ikomeye ya Afurica cyangwa intambara ya gatatu y’isi” , ayo yose ni amazina ayitirirwa nk’uko byanditswe  n’urubuga Wikipedia dukesha iyi nkuru.

Umwaka umwe gusa nyuma wari wihiritse muri Republika Iharanira Demokrasi harangiye indi ntambara nayo itari yoroshye,ari nayo yari yashyize ku butegetsi perezida Laurent Desire Kabila.

The Great War of Africa rero, muri Kanama 1998 nayo iba yisutsemo, urugamba rurambikana, mu ntambara zitoroshye ,zahuje ibihugu bya Afurika bitari bike, aho buri kimwe muri byo cyakoze ku ntwaro zacyo, izikomeye n’izoroheje , imbaga y’abasirikare baturuka imihanda yose, bose bahuriye ku butaka wa Congo ruresurana karahava.

Ni intambara yarwanywe imyaka itanu, kuko yaje gusozwa ahagana muri Nyakanga 2003, nyuma y’uko muri iki gihugu hari hamaze gushyirwaho Leta y’inzibacyuho, yari ihuriwemo n’impande zari zihanganye ku ruhande rw’abakongomani hagati yabo ubwabo, mu masezerano bagiranye ,agizwemo uruhare na buri ruhande rw’ibihugu byahuriraga mu gutera inkunga,kimwe mu bice byari bihanganye.

Ku ruhande rw’abarwanya ubutegetsi bari bibumbiye muri RCD Goma ,baterwaga inkunga n’ibihugu by’u Rwanda na Uganda ,ndetse n’u Burundi buvugwamo mu buryo butaziguye,mu gihe ku rundi ruhande, Leta ya Republika iharanira demokarasi ya Congo yari ishyigikiwe n’ibihugu bitari bike byaturukaga mu matsinda atari make .

Bimwe muri byo harimo: Angola, Chad, Namibia, Zimbabwe n’ibindi.

Ni intambara yari ihuriyemo ibihugu 8 bya rutura mu bya gisirikare muri Afurika, hamwe n’imitwe y’inyeshyamba yasagaga 20, habariwemo na The Lord Resistance Army yarwanyaga Uganda, n’indi mitwe y’inyeshyamba yakoreraga mu karere ka Ituri , Kivu zombi n’ahandi.

Ibijya gucika bica amarenga, iyi ntambara yabanje gututumba abantu babyita ibikino

Kugirango umuntu avuge neza kuri iyi ntambara, bisaba kubanza guca mu mateka y’iyayibanjirije, yari yaratangiye mu 1996, iyobowe na Kabila mukuru .

Byose kandi byari bifitanye isano n’impungenge z’umutekano w’u Rwanda n’imipaka yarwo, itarahwemaga kuvogerwa n’abitwaje intwaro baturukaga ku butaka bwa Congo, mu dutero nshuma tutaburaga guhitana abantu, ahegereye umupaka wa Congo n’u Rwanda.

Ni mu gihe kandi hari amategeko agenga impunzi ku isi ,harimo n’uko nta mpunzi ubundi ziba zigomba kugira inkambi hafi y’imipaka z’igihugu ziba zaraturutsemo.

Wikipedia igaragaza neza ko ibyo u Rwanda rwabicungiraga hafi cyane kugeza aho rwahisemo gutoza no guha intwaro ubwoko bw’abanyamulenge bubarizwa muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo, mu rwego rwo kuba baburizamo [ Enemy Neutralisation ] imigambi yari ifitwe n’abahoze mu gisirikare cya FAR [ Forces Armée Rwandaise ] cyari cyaratsinzwe n’Ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi, hamwe kandi n’imitwe y’interahamwe.

Abo bose bari barekereje ku mipaka y’uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda, bashaka kugaruka ku ruhembe rw’umuheto ngo bakureho ubutegetsi bwa Kigali.

Ku ruhande rwa Zaire ariko naho hari imyiteguro y’Ingabo za Maréchal Mobutu Sese Seko zahoraga ziryamiye amajanja, gusa mu bwinshi bwazo, mu buhangange n’imyitozo ikaze byari bizwi kuri izi ngabo, cyane cyane umutwe wa DSP [ Division Spéciale Présidentielle ].

DSP wari umutwe ushinzwe umutekano wa Mobutu, hamwe n’abakomando bakomeye babaga babarizwa mu Kigo cyabo cya Kotakoli , Mobutu ntiyigeze yiyumvisha aho ubutegetsi bwa Kigali bwari guturuka bumwubahuka,cyane ko yanareba ku ruhande rw’ingabo za EX-FAR n’Interahamwe zari aho akumva ibyo gutera igihugu cye ari nk’inzozi.

Ikibazo kindi cyabaye ingorabahizi kuri Zaire y’icyo gihe, ni Politiki na Dipolomasi byayo bitari byifashe neza, cyane cyane ko Mobutu Sese Seko yarebanaga ay’ingwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, iyi kandi ikaba yarafatwaga nk’inkingi ya mwamba ya Dipolomasi ya Kigali, kubera ubucuti bw’akadasohoka Washington yari ifitanye nayo.

Niko rero ibihugu bitavugaga rumwe na Mobutu Sese Seko byaje kwisunga u Rwanda , aho ingabo za Uganda na Angola zaje mu rugamba.

Ikihutirwaga kandi kwari ugushaka no kwegeranya abanyapolitiki bari bakomeye bashobora guhangana na Mobutu, bari barubatse izina mu rwego rw’isi ari nako inzego z’ubutasi z’u Rwanda ,zavumbuye Laurent Desire Kabila wari impunzi y’umukongomani muri Tanzania agasabwa kuza kuyobora umutwe AFDL [ Alliance des Forces pour la Liberation du Congo ], cyane ko Kabila yari umuntu uzwi nk’impirimbanyi mu kurwanya Mobutu ,uhereye ku ngoma ya Patrice Lumumba.

Kabila rero wagenderaga ku mahame ya Marxist na Mao Zedong wayoboye ukwibohora kw’Abashinwa ,byaramworoheye kuyobora umutwe w’inyeshyamba, kuko atari muto mu bya politiki mpuzamahanga.

Kuva  ubwo rero intambara yararose, ingabo za AFDL ziyobowe n’abofosiye bakomeye ba Uganda n’u Rwanda , ndetse na Angola batangije ibitero ari nabwo uduce nka Kasenga twafatwaga ariko ikipe ya propaganda ya Mobutu ,ikoresheje itangazamakuru rya Zaire igahakana ayo makuru.

Kuwa 27 Werurwe 1997, nibwo habayeho kurasana kwa mbere , mu gihe gito cyakurikiyeho kingana n’ukwezi kumwe, ahagana hagati muri Mata uwo mwaka Kabila n’ingabo ze bari bamaze kwerekana imbaraga zidasanzwe ,mu kwigarurira uduce dukomeye twa Kivu y’Iburasirazuba.

Kuwa 16 Gicurasi 1997, nibwo Mobutu n’umuryango we bahunze umujyi wa Kinshasa, ahungira muri Morocco ari naho yaguye.

Nyuma yo kwigarurirwa n’ingabo za Kabila, zari ziyobowe n’u Rwanda ,Angola ,Uganda ndetse n’ingabo z’abanyamulenge bwite, icyari gukurikiraho kwari ugushyiraho ubutegetsi bushya.

Bukeye bwaho kuwa 17 Gicurasi 1997, Laurent Desire Kabila yahise atangaza ko ubutegetsi buhinduwe akaba abaye Perezida wa Zaire ya Mobutu, igahindurirwa izina, kuva ubwo Zaire ihinduka Republika iharanira demokrasi ya Congo kugeza magingo aya.

Intandaro y’intambara karahabutaka ; “The Great War of Africa” ku butaka bwa Congo yabaye ikimenywabose ku isi ya Rurema

Kimwe mu bintu bitoroheye Laurent Kabila kwari ugusobanurira abakongomani impamvu mu kubohozwa kw’igihugu cyabo hagaragaramo uruhare rukomeye rw’amahanga.

Kabila n’abakongomani rero byasaga n’ibibatera ipfa n’ikimwaro cyo kuba mu kinyejana cya 20 igihugu cyabo cyari kiyobowe na bamwe mu bategetsi bakomoka mu mahanga.

Ku itariki 14 Nyakanga 1998 , nibwo Perezida Laurent Kabila yasezereye umugaba w’ingabo z’igihugu cya Congo,maze kuva ubwo Jenerali James Kabare [ ubu ni James Kabarebe ] asimbuzwaJenerali Celestin Kifwa ,iki kikaba ari ikintu kitashimishije ubutegetsi bwa Kigali ,kuba byarakozwe batabiganiriyeho, gusa icyavuzweho cyane ni uko Kabila yagize James Kabare umujyanama w’uwari umaze kumusimbura .

Kabila wasaga n’uwahinduye imigambi ye ku Rwanda ariko ntiyashizwe ,kuko nyuma gato ho ibyumweru bibiri y’uko yari yakuyeho James Kabare ,yatangaje icyemezo cy’uko yisubiyeho ku mwanzuro wo kumugira umujyanama mu bya gisirikare , atangaza ko ahisemo guhagarika umubano wose mu bya gisirikare n’u Rwanda.

Laurent Kabila yategetse ko Ingabo z’u Rwanda na Uganda ziva ku butaka bwe igitaranya bitarenze amasaha 24, zidakoza amaguru hasi, kuko ubusanzwe hanagombaga kubaho umuhango wo gushimira izi ngabo z’ibi bihugu ku kazi zakoze ko kumufasha ariko ibyo byose abitera utwatsi.

Kuva ubwo, uwitwa umunyamulenge yahise atangira kurebwa ikijisho n’abandi bakongomani bari batuye Kinshasa, kuko ubwoko bw’abanyamulenge butashirwaga amakenga ko butaba buri mu kwaha ku Rwanda, byumvikane ko kandi uguhungabanya umutekano ku banyamulenge ,byari ukwisubira kw’ikibazo n’ubusanzwe cyari muri bimwe mu byateje intambara ya Congo ya mbere, n’ubwo ubu intambara Bwiza.com iri kuvugaho ari iyitiriwe iya 3 y’isi ya Afurika! .

Nguko uko rero intambara yadutse ,ikaza kuba impuzamahanga [Conventional war] kandi biturutse ku tuntu duto, gusa abasesengura utuntu n’utundi bavuga ko byanashoboka ko hari amazeserano Kabila yari afitanye n’ibihugu byamuteye inkunga, we yabonaga kuyubahiriza byaba bigoye, agahitamo gucana umubano nabyo.

Intambara nyirizina yatangiriye ku mujyi wa Goma

Guhera mu rucyerera rwo kuwa 2 Kanama 1998, nibwo amatsinda yitirirwaga abanyamulenge ryari mu gisirikare cya Congo ,mu mujyi wa Goma, ryatangiye kurasa mu kirere ,ibintu bitangira kuba bibi.

Ibihugu u Rwanda na Uganda byahise byohereza ingabo zikomeye zo gutera inkunga abari bari kwivumbagatanya, nibwo hahitaga hashingwa umutwe wa RCD [Rassemblement Démocratique Congolais] – Goma.

Mu gihe kidatinze , uyu mutwe wari umaze kwigarurira uduce tutari duke twa Kivu zombi,iyo hepfo na ruguru . Uko ibi byakorwaga ariko ni nako uwitwaga umunyamulenge yari amerewe nabi muri Kinshasa,ubwo benshi biciwe mu mihanda izuba riva,abandi bagahohoterwa.

Ku wa 12 Kanama uwo mwaka , Radio Bunia yatambukije itangazo rihamagarira buri wese guhaguruka bagatsemba abo bitaga Abatutsi b’Abanyarwanda mu Itangazo ryagiraga riti “Yemwe baturage mwese mwe, muhurure n’imipanga , amacumu, imiheto, amafuni, amabuye, insinga z’amashanyarazi ,twikuremwo abatutsi b’abanyarwanda”….,Radio Bunia, icyo gihe.

Iri tangazo rya Radio Bunia ryahise risa n’irikanguye abanyamulenge n’abandi bakongomani bavuga ururimi rw’ikinyarwanda biganje mu kerere ka Kivu zombi,batangira gutekereza ko ahari Laurent Kabila yaba ari gutegura jenoside ,yashoboraga kubakorerwa.

Uwavuga ko iri tangazo n’ubwo ryahamagariraga abantu kumara abandi ryabaye nk’intsinzi kuri RCD-Goma ,kuko uko Kabila yakozaga propaganda zamagana u Rwanda ,ni nako abavuga ikinyarwanda batuye Congo biyumvaga nk’abatungwa agotoki, maze urubyiruko rutari ruke rwo muri Kivu rurushaho kwitabira intambara ku rwego rutari rwitezwe na benshi.

Muri icyo gihe rero nibwo Jenerali James Kabare yigaruriye indege 3 zo mu bwoko bwa Cargo ,maze azipakira abasirikare amagana n’amagana, bagaba ibitero ku kigo cya Kitona kiri hafi n’inkengero z’inyanja ya Atlantic .

N’ubwo bitavuzweho cyane mu makuru yagiye atangazwa, biravugwa ko hafi y’iki kigo ingabo zateye Kinshasa zari zinarimo udutsiko tw’inyeshyamba nke , zabaga ziturutse mu mutwe wa UNITA zabaga zishaka kurwana zigahabwa ibyo kurya, yewe ko n’inyeshyamba za Pascal Lissouba warwanyaga Leta ya Congo Brazaville zitatanzwe kuza gusaba akazi mu ngabo zateye Kinshasa zituruka Kitona ,n’ubwo aya makuru ya Wikipedia nta ruhande rudafite aho rubogamiye rwari rwayemeza.

Ku itariki ya 13 Kanama ,nibwo urugomero rwa Inga ,rwagaburiraga umuriro w’amashanyarazi Kinshasa no ku cyambu cya Matati rwazimywaga ,Kinshasa n’icyambu bihinduka icuraburindi.

Kuwa 23 Kanama kandi nibwo umujyi wa Kisangani wagwaga mu maboko y’ingabo za RCD-Goma zari ziyobowe n’abakomanda bo mu ngabo z’u Rwanda.

Ubwo u Rwanda rwaremaga umutwe wa RCD-Goma ariko ,igihugu cya Uganda nacyo cyashoboye gushyira hamwe umutwe wagombaga kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Congo ,buwita MLC , The Movement for the Liberation of Congo , mu magambo arambuye y’icyongereza.

Gusa Laurent Kabila ntiyahwemye gutakamba ,ashaka intwaro n’abamufasha impande zose,kuko byihuse yahise asaba inkunga igihugu cya Cuba ,ndetse na bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika atabyibagiwe.

 Intabaza ya Kabila yumviswe neza cyane n’ibihugu bya SADEC ku ikubitiro

Ubusanzwe ibihugu byibumbiye mu muryango w’ubukungu uhuza ibihugu byo mu majyepfo ya Afurika SADC byari bisanganywe amasezerano yo gufashanya mu bya gisirikare.

Ni muri urwo rwego ibihugu nka Angola , Namibia , Zimbabwe , byihutiye guhurira mu murwa mukuru Harare muri Zimbabwe mu rwego rwo gutera inkunga mugenzi wa bo Laurent Kabila, nkuko yari yabibasabye,hari ku wa 19 Kanama 1998.

Muri ibyo bihugu kandi, bidatinze hahise hiyongeraho Tchad , Libya na Sudan, nabyo byohereje ingabo n’ibikoresho kurwanaho ubutegetsi bwa Kabila.

Rwarambikanye karahava guhera muri Nzeri, intambara yari ishyushye ku rwego ruhambaye. Ingabo zabanje kuza mu mirwano ni iza Zimbabwe , mu gihe ingabo za Angola zo zari zikambitse mu ntara ya Cabinda zateye Congo zigamije kugabanya umuvuduko w’ingabo za Uganda n’u Rwanda zari ziri gusatira gufata umujyi wa Kinshasa ziturutse Kitona na Matadi.

Kuwa 6 Ugushyingo 1998 nibwo uwari Visi Perezida na Minisitiri w’Ingabo w’u Rwanda, Jenerali Majoro Paul Kagame yatangazaga ku mugaragaro ko nta w’ukwiye gushidikanya ko ingabo z’u Rwanda ziri muri iyo ntambara yabicaga bigacika,mu mfuruka zose za Congo.

Ibi ariko byaje nyuma y’aho Nelson Mandela ahamagariye impande zitavugaga rumwe muri iyi ntambara kurambika intwaro hasi ,hakabaho ibiganiro bisesuye mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko iyi ntambara yashoboraga gukwira Afurika yose,n’isi yose itibagiranye.

Kuva ubwo kuwa 18 Mutarama 1999 , i Windhoek ,muri Namibia hateraniye inama yo kureba uko ibintu byasubira mu buryo ,ariko umutwe wa RCD-Goma ntiwatumirwa. Ku bw’ibyo intambara zakomeje guca ibintu ,hatitawe kuri iyo nama yari ihuje abaparezida bashakaga guhindura isura y’intambara,cyangwa se kugaragaza ko Kabila yari amaze kubona andi maboko.

N’ubwo byari bimeze gutyo ariko , hari ibihugu bimwe bitagaragaje aho bibogamiye.

Ingabo za Zimbabwe ZNA [ Zimbabwe National Army ] ziri mu zahanyanyaje mu kwigaragaza ku ruhande rwa Laurent Desire Kabila ,mu gihe inyeshyamba za RCD-Goma nazo zakomeje kubica bigacika ku bufatanye buhambaye n’ingabo z’u Rwanda na Uganda ku rundi ruhande.

Abasirikare barwanira mu kirere ba Zimbabwe bo mu ngabo zidasanzwe, bakoresheje imitaka bamanukiragamo, bashoboye kubohoza tumwe mu duce tw’ingenzi twari tugize Kinshasa.

Nyuma y’uko Kinshasa hashyizwe abasirikare 1000 ba Zimbabwe , nyuma y’igihe gito ,igihugu cya Zimbabwe cyongereyeho abandi basirikare bagizwe ba batayo 2.

Bimwe mu bikoresho izi ngabo zari zitwaje harimo , ibifaru byo mu bwoko bwa T-54/55 ,hamwe n’ibindi bimodoka by’imitamenwa byo gutwara ingabo ku rugamba , hamwe n’izindi ntwaro ziri mu bwoko bwa EE-9 Cascavel zazanwe n’indege y’ingabo za Angolan Air Force.

Mu kwezi kw’ugushyingo ,ingabo z’amahanga zari zimaze gukabakaba 6000 ,mu gihe ibihumbi 12000 by’abasirikare bari bamaze kugera muri Congo ,baturuka mu bihugu bitandukanye ,byari bije gufasha Kabila.

Muri  Mbuji-Mayi ho mu karere ka Kasai ,ingabo za Zimbabwe zikoresheje Kajugujugu zazo zo mu bwoko bwa BAE Hawks hamwe na Hawker Hunters zashoboye gukoma imbere umuvuduko w’ingabo z’u Rwanda n’inyeshyamba za RCD-Goma.

Mu gihe cyakurikiyeho , zibifashijwemo n’indege z’intambara za Mil Mi-24 Helicopters ,hamwe n’izindi zitwa Chengdu J-7 zakorewe mu Bushinwa , ingabo za Zimbabwe zakomeje intambara,ariko mu gihe gito inyeshyamba zibifashijwemo n’ingabo z’u Rwanda, zashoboye kurasa no gutwika ibifaru no guhanura indege zitari nke za Zimbabwe.

Uku gusandazwa no gutwikwa kw’intwaro za Zimbabwe, kwayibereye igihombo gikomeye ,byatumye Banki y’isi hamwe n’Ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’imari IMF byinubira itumizwa ry’ibyuma byo gusimbuza ibyari byangiritse ku bifaru , ku kiguzi cy’amadolari miliyoni 60,byangiritse kubera intambara ya Congo.

Uretse Zimbabwe kandi na Angola , ibindi bihugu nabyo birimo Tchad byazanye abasirikare muri iyi ntambara.

Igihugu cya Tchad ngo cyaba cyarazanye abasirikare 2000 kibisabwe mu buryo bw’ibanga na Leta y’u Bufaransa ,mu rwego rwo gusigasira imipaka y’ururimi rw’igifaransa kugirango rudakomeza gutakaza ibirindiro mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari.

N’ubwo bimeze bityo ariko , iyi ntambara yahuje amahanga atandukanye ,byashojwe nk’uko iyi nkuru yabigarutseho mu itangiriro ,habayeho amasezerano yo guhagarika intambara hagati y’inyeshyamba na Leta ya Kinshasa,bityo ibihugu byari bifite abasirikare muri Congo ,birimo n’u Rwanda ,bicyura ingabo zabyo.

Gusa n’ubwo ibi bihugu byari 8 mu ruhande rwa Laurent Kabila , hamwe n’u Rwanda na Uganda ku rundi ruhande , nta n’umwe washoboye gukura undi mu birindiro ,kuko hari umurongo wari waraciwe ,ugabanya ibirindiro by’ingabo impande zombi mu bice bibiri, uyu murongo ukaba wari urundanijeho ingabo zisaga ibihumbi 100 by’abasirikare ,n’ibitwaro bitagira ingano byo mu bwoko bwose.

Src: Bwiza.com

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